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KAYPRO 10 Help Needed Please


New Member
Jan 13, 2019
PanamaCity, Florida
I picked up a KAYPRO 10 and a Box with a Bunch of Manuals with it. It powers on and comes to a screen that says:
Mon 1.9g
Then if I hit RETURN it displays:

I can not pass this. Say I type in the letter d and hit Return It comes back on the screen with a d?
If I type d b:$uvs It comes back with D B:$UVS?
Anything I type it replies back with what I type and puts a ? On it and goes back to
I think I am in the Root of the Black Hole or Something. :D
Any Help would be Very Much Appreciated


Veteran Member
Mar 14, 2013
Chaffee, MO
This will get you started.


CP/M ver 1.4 & 2.x Programmer's Reference Guide


DIR Display file directory, current drive
DIR d: Display file directory, designated drive
DIR filename.typ Search for file name, current drive
DIR *.typ Display all files of named type, curr drive
DIR filename.* Display all types of designated filename
DIR x????.* Display all filenames 5 characters long and
starting with letter x

TYPE filename.typ Display ASCII file, current drive
TYPE d:filename.typ Display ASCII file, designated drive

ERA filename.typ Erase named file, current drive
ERA *.* Erase all files, curr drv, ver 2.x curr user
ERA *.typ Erase all files, current drive
ERA d:filename.typ Erase named file, designated drive
ERA filename.* Erase all types of named file, current drive

REN nuname.typ=olname.typ Rename file, current drive
REN d:nuname.typ=olname.typ Rename file, designated drive

SAVE n filename.typ Save as named file, current drive
SAVE n d:filename.typ Save as named file, designated drive
n pages (page = 256 bytes) starting at 100H

d: Switch to designated drive, making it current drive
V 1.4: A-D V 2.x: A-P

USER n Change user area (n=0 to 15) (ver 2.x)


DDT Initiate Dynamic Debugging Tool
DDT filename.typ Initiate DDT and load named file

ASM filename Assemble named ASM file on current drive
ASM d:filename Assemble named ASM file on designated drive
ASM filename.abc Assemble named ASM file:
a = source file drive
b = HEX file destination drive (Z=skip)
c = PRN file destination drive (X=console,Z=skip)

LOAD filename Make COM file from named HEX file on current drive
LOAD d:filename Make COM file from named HEX file on design. drive

DUMP filename.typ Display file in hex, current drive
DUMP d:filename.typ Display file in hex, designated drive

MOVCPM Relocate and execute (max) KByte CP/M system
MOVCPM n Relocate and execute n KByte CP/M system
MOVCPM n * Create relocated image in RAM of n Kbyte
CP/M system, ready for SYSGEN or SAVE
MOVCPM * * Create relocated image in RAM of (max) Kbyte
CP/M system, ready for SYSGEN or SAVE

SYSGEN Initiate SYStem GENerate program

SUBMIT filename parameters Execute SUB file using optional parameter(s)

XSUB Execute eXtended SUBmit program (V2.x)

ED filename.typ Execute EDitor to create or edit named file
ED d:filename.typ Execute EDitor to create or edit named file

STAT Display STATus (R/W or R/O) \/ current drive
STAT d: and available disk space /\ design. drive
STAT DEV: Display DEVice assignments
STAT VAL: Display VALid device assignments
STAT DSK: Display DISK characteristics (V2.x)
STAT USR: Display current USeR areas (V2.x)
STAT filename.typ $S Display size of file (V2.x)
STAT fiename.typ Display file characteristics, current drive
STAT d:filename.typ Display file characteristics, designated drive
STAT d:=R/O Change designated drive to Read-Only
STAT filename.typ $R/O Change named file to Read-Only (V2.x)
STAT filename.typ $R/W Change named file to Read-Write (V2.x)
STAT filename.COM $SYS Change named file to System file (V2.x)
STAT filename.COM $DIR Change named file to Directory file (V2.x)
STAT gd:=pd: Change general device (CON:,LST:,PUN:,RDR:)
assignment of physical device (IOBYTE)



PIP Initiate Peripheral Interchange Program
*d:=s:filename.typ Copy named file from source drive to dest drive
*d:nuname.*=s:eek:lname.typ Copy & rename from source drive to dest drive
PIP d:=s:filename.typ Initiate PIP and copy named file
PIP d:=s:*.* from source drive \/ all files
PIP d:=s:filename.* to || all named files
PIP d:=s:*.typ destination drive /\ all files named type
PIP LST:=filename.typ Send named file to list device
PIP PUN:=filename.typ Send named file to punch device
PIP CON:=filename.typ Send named file to console device
PIP filename.typ=RDR: Copy data from reader device to named file

*nuname.typ=aname.typ,bname.typ,cname.typ ASCII copy & concatenate
*nuname.typ=aname.typ,bname.typ ASCII copy & concatenate
*nuname.typ=aname.typ[X],bname.typ[X] binary copy & concatenate

PIP LST:=aname.typ,bname.typ Send files in sequence to list device
PIP LST:=s:aname.typ,s:bname.typ Send files in sequence to list device

PIP allows access to any logical and physical devices defined in the
CP/M system. Logical devices: CON: RDR: PUN: LST:
Physical devices: TTY: CRT: PTR: UR1: UR2: PTP: UP1: UP2: LPT: UL1:

Special PIP devices (locations 109H to 1FFH are not used in the PIP
image and can be replaced by used drivers using DDT)
NUL: Send 40 NUL's (ASCII 00H) to the device
(can be issued at the end of punched output)
EOF: Send a CP/M EOF (ASCII Ctrl-Z=1AH) to dest device
(sent automatically at end of ASCII transfers thru PIP)
INP: Special PIP input source which can be patched into PIP:
PIP gets input from here by calling 103H, with data
returned at 109H)
OUT: Special PIP output destination which can be patched into PIP:
PIP calls 106H with data to be output in C for each char.
PRN: Same as LST: except that tabbs are expanded to every 8th
column, lines are numbered, and page ejects are inserted
every 60 lines with an initial eject (same as PIP options [t8np])


example *filename.typ=RDR:

- read data block until ^S (ctrl-S) character
[Dn] - delete characters past column n
[E] - echo all copy operations to console
[F] - remove form feeds
[Gn] - get file from user area n (V2.x)
[H] - check for proper HEX format
- same as H plus ignores ":00"
[L] - change all upper case characters to lower case
[N] - add line numbers without leading zeros
[N2] - same as N plus leading zeros and a TAB after number
[O] - object file transfer; ignore end-of-file (Ctrl-Z)
[P] - insert form feed every 60 lines
[Pn] - insert form feed every n lines
[Qstring^Z] - Quit copying after string is found
[R] - read SYS file (V2.x)
[Sstring^Z] - Start copying when string is found
[Tn] - expand tab space to every n columns
- change all lower case characters to upper case
[V] - verify copied data (destination must be disk file)
[W] - delete R/O files at destination (V2.x)
[X] - copy non-ACII files
[Z] - zero parity bit (hi bit) on all characters in file


CON: CONsole device (defined in BIOS)
EOF: send End-of-File (ASCII ^Z) to device
INP: INPut source (pathced in PIP)
LST: LiST device (defined in BIOS)
NUL: send 40 NUL's to device
OUT: OUTput destination (pathced in PIP)
PRN: same as LST:; tabs every 8th char, number lines & page
ejects every 60 lines with initial eject
PUN: PUNch device (defined in BIOS)
RDR: ReaDeR device (defined in BIOS)


Control char ASCII code Function

C 03h Reboot - CP/M warm boot
E 05h Start new line
H 08h Backspace and delete (V2.x)
I 09h Tab 8 columns
J 0Ah Line feed
M 0Dh Carriage return
P 10h Printer on/Printer off
R 12h Retype current line
S 13h Stop display outout (any char except ^C restarts)
U 15h Delete line
X 18h Same as Û (V1.4)
Z 1Ah End of console input (ED & PIP)
delete/rubout 7Fh Delete and display character (tape only)



line# label operation operant ;comment

labels followed by colon 1-16 alphanumeric characters
symbol (eq. EQU) no colon first must be alpha, ? or .
labels are case insensitive (treated as uppercase)
$ is insignificant and can be inserted
anywhere for readability

Assembly Program Format (space separates fields)

[line#] label: opcode oerand(s) ;comment

A number of digits with a suffix:
B binary
O or Q octal
D decimal (default)
H hexadecimal

Reserved words in operand fields

The names of the 8080 registers are reserved, and produce the
following values if encountered in the operand field:

A 7
B 0
C 1
D 2
E 3
H 4
L 5
M 6
SP 6

Mnemonics for machine instructions are reserved and evaluate to
their internal codes. Instructions which require operands will
get zeroes in their operand fields, e.g. MOV will produce 40H

The symbol $ in the operand field evaulates to the address of
the next instruction to generate, not including the instruction
within the current logical line

String constants are delimieted by an apostrophe ('), and a
double apostrophe ('') will produce one apostrophe

Operators (unsigned)

a+b a added to b
a-b difference between a and b
+b 0+b (unary addition)
-b 0-b (unary subtraction)
a*b a multiplied by b
a/b a divided by b (integer)
a MOD b remainder after a/b
NOT b complement all b-bits
a AND b bit-by-bit AND of a and b
a OR b bit-by-bit OR of a and b
a XOR b bit-by-bit XOR of a and b
a SHL b shift a left b bits, end off, zero fill
a SHR b shift a right b bits, end off, zero fill

Hierarcy of operations

highest: * / MOD SHL SHR
- +


ORG const Set program or data origin (Default=0)
END start End program, optional address where excution begins

EQU const Define symbol value (may not be changed)
SET const Define symbol value (may be changed later)

IF const Assemble block conditionally until ENDIF
ENDIF Terminate conditionala ssembly block

DS const Define storage sace for later use
DB byte[,byte...] Define bytes as numeric or ASCII constants
DW word[,word...] Define words (two bytes)

const=constant (true if bit 0 is 1, otherwise false)

Error codes

D Data error (element cannot be placed in data area)
E Expression error (ill-formed expression)
L Label error
N Not implemented
O Overflow (expression too complicated to compute)
P Phase error (label has different values on each pass)
R register error (specified value not compatible with op code)
U Undefined label (label does not exist)
V Vaue error (operand improper)

Fatal errors



ASC ASCII text file, usually Basic source
ASM ASseMbly langaige file (source for ASM program)
BAK BAcKup copy file (created by editor)
BAS BASic source program file, usually tokenized
COM COMmand file (transient exeuctable program)
DAT DATa file
DOC DOCument file
FOR FORtran source program file
INT INTermediate Basic program file (executable)
HEX HEXadecimal format file (for LOAD program)
LIB Library file used by macro assembler
PLI PL/I source file
PRN PRiNt file (source and object produced by ASM)
REL RELocatable file
SAV System file (V2.x)
SUB SUBmit text file executed by SUBMIT program
SYM SID symbol file
TEX TEXt formatter source file
XRF Cross reference file
$$$ Temporary file

Filename - 8 characters maximum
Filetype - 3 characters maximum

Invalid filename and filetype characters
< > . , ; : = ? [ ]


DDT filename.HEX
DDT filename.COM

A sad Assemble symbolic code; start at sad

D Dump RAM to console from cad, 16 lines
D sad Dump RAM to console from sad, 16 lines
D sad,ead Dump RAM to console from sad thru ead

F sad,ead,const Fill RAM from sad thru ead with const

G Start program exec. at saved PC
G sad Start program exec. at sad
G sad,bp1 Start program exec. at sad and stop at bp1
G sad,bp1,bp2 Start program exec. at sad and stop at bp1 or bp2
G,bp1,bp2 Start program exec. at cad and stop at bp1 or bp2
G0 Jump to 0000H ==> exits DDT (equivalent to Ctrl-C)

H a,b Display hex a+b and a-b

I filename Set up FCB at 5CH for user code
I filename.typ Set up FCB at 5CH for R-command (HEX or COM file)

L Disassemble RAM from cad, 12 lines
L sad Disassemble RAM from sad, 12 lines
L sad,ead Disassemble RAM from sad thru ead

M sad,ead,nad Move RAM block from sad thru ead to nad

R Read file specified by I command to RAM
R offset at normal address + optional offset
The R command requires a previos I command
There is no W (write file) command, instead
exit DDT (by G0 or Ctrl-C) and then use SAVE

S sad Examine and optionally alter RAM, byte by byte,
starting at sad

T Trace: execute 1 instruction with register dump
T n Trace: Execute n instructions with register dump

U Untrace: same as T except that intermediate
U n steps are not displayed

X Examine register or flags, display format:
CfZfMfEfIf A=bb B=dddd D=dddd H=dddd S=dddd P=dddd inst
Xr Examine/change registers or flags
C Carry flag (0/1)
Z Zero flag (0/1)
M Sign flag (0/1)
E Parity flag (0/1)
I Aux Carry flag (0/1)
A Accumulator (0-FF)
B BC reg pair (0-FFFF)
D DE reg pair (0-FFFF)
H HL reg pair (0-FFFF)
S Stack Pointer (0-FFFF)
P Program Counter (0-FFFF)

cad = current address
nad = new address
sad = start address
ead = end address

? = error, can mean:
file cannot be opened
checksum error in HEX file
assembler(disassembler overlayed


nA Append n lines to buffer (n=0 - use haf of buffer)
B Move pointer to beginning of file
-B Move pointer to end of file
nC Move pointer forward n characters
nD Delete n characters forward
E End edit, close file, return to CP/M
nFs Find n'th occurence of string 's'
H End edit, move pointer to beginning of file
I Insert text at pointer until ^Z typed
Is Insert string at pointer
nK Kill n lines starting at pointer
nL Move pointer n lines
nMx Execute command string 'x' n times
nNs Global F-command - until end of file
O Abort ED, start over with original file
nP List next n pages of 23 lines (n=0 - current page)
Q Quit without changing input file
Rfn Read fn.LIB into buffer at current pointer
nSx^Zy Substitute string 'y for next n forward occurrences of string 'x'
nT Type n lines
U Change lower case to upper case (next entry)
V Enable internal line number generation
nW Write n lines to output file, start at beginning of buffer
nX Write next n lines to file 'X$$$$$$$.LIB'
nZ Pause n/2 seconds (2 MHz)
n Move forward n lines
<CR> Move forward one line and type one line
- Move backward
n:x Move to n line number and perform 'x' command
:mx Perform command 'x' from current line to line m
n::mx Move to n line number and perform command 'x' from
current line to line m

note: "-" valid on all positioning and display commands
for backward movement (e.g. -nC)


Enter PIP wait for the * prompt. Hit Return to go back to exit PIP.
Now, enter the user area, say USER 1. Type SAVE 28 PIP.COM and hit
Return (SAVE 30 PIP.COM in CP/M 3).

Now, PIP.COM is in your new user area, and you can copy any file
into your area from area 0 by typing PIP A:=<ufn>[G0] and Return.


The CCP stars with the instructions:

JMP CCPSTART ; Start the console processor
JMP CCPCLEAR ; Clear the initial command
DB 127 ; Maximum command length
CL: DB 0 ; Current command length
DB ' ' ; 8 spaces
DB ' ' ; 8 more spaces
DB 'COPYRIGHT... ; Copyright notice

Starting at CL, patch in the command, e.g.:

CL: DB 3 ; Current command length
DB 'DIR',0 ; DIR command, NUL terminated
DB ' ' ; 4 spaces
DB ' ' ; 8 more spaces
DB 'COPYRIGHT... ; Copyright notice

and add this to the CCP image on the system tracks of your disk
(using MOVCPM, DDT and SYSTEM on most CP/M systems, or DDT amd
CPM56K.COM or CPM60K.COM on Apple CP/M). Now, after every warm boot
the CCP will execute this command (in this example a 'DIR' command)


Function no Value passed to BDOS Value returned in
in C reg in DE (or E) regs A or HL regs

Dec Hex

0 00 System reset -- --
1 01 Console read -- A = char
2 02 Console write E = char --
3 03 Reader read -- A = char
4 04 Punch write E = char --
5 05 List write E = char --
6 06 Direct console I/O E = FFh (input) A = char
(V2.x) E = char (output) --
7 07 Get IOBYTE -- A = IOBYTE
8 08 Set IOBYTE E = IOBYTE --
9 09 Print string DE = string addr --
string terminated by $, tabs are expanded as in func 2
10 0A Read console buffer DE = buffer addr A = #chars in buffer
buffer: 1st byte = bufsize, 2nd byte = chars input
11 0B Get console status -- A = 00(not rdy)/FF(rdy)
12 0C Lift head (V1.x) -- --
Get version (V2.x) -- HL = version no
H: 0=CP/M, 1=MP/M
L: 0=v1.4
13 0D Reset disk** -- --
14 0E Select disk E = drive no --
0=A, 1=B, ...0FH=P
15 0F Open file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
16 10 Close file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
17 11 Search for first DE = FCB addr A = dir code
18 12 Search for next -- A = dir code
19 13 Delete file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
20 14 Read sequential DE = FCB addr A = ret code
21 15 Write sequential DE = FCB addr A = ret code
22 16 Create file DE = FCB addr A = dir code
23 17 Rename file DE = old FCB addr A = dir code
24 18 Get login vector -- (V1.4) HL = drive code
25 19 Get disk no -- A = curr disk no
(0-15 for A-P)
26 1A Set DMA addr DE = DMA addr --
27 1B Get alloc vector -- HL = ava
28 1C Write protect disk -- --
29 1D Get R/O vector -- HL = R/O vect
30 1E Set file attrib DE = FCB addr A = dir code
31 1F Get addr disk params -- HL = dpba
32 20 Set user code E = user code --
32 20 Get user code E = FFh A = curr user code
33 21 Read random DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code ***
34 22 Write random DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code ***
35 23 Compute file size DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code
36 24 Set random record DE = ext. FCB addr A = ret code
37 25 Reset drive DE = drive vector A = 0
38 26 (unused) -- --
39 27 (unused) -- --
40 28 Write random DE = FCB addr A = ret code ***
with zero fill

dir code: directory code:
0FFH=failed (e.g. file not found, directory full)
0,1,2,3 = success: offset into current DMA buffer, which
contains a directory sector, where the FCB can be found

ret code: return code -- 0=success, non-zero=failed

* V1.4 none
** V1.4 initializes system and selects A: drive
*** ret codes:
00 - no error
01 - reading unwritten data
03 - cannot close current extent
04 - seek to unwritten extent
05 - directory overflow (write only)
06 - seek past physical end of disk

char = ASCII character
addr = address
dir = directory code
cdn = current drive number (A=0, B=1, etc)
dpba = disk parameter block address in CBIOS

Function 9: string is terminated with '$'

Function 10: Console buffer: 1st byte = max # chars in buffer (input)
2nd byte = actual # chars in buffer (output)
remaining bytes = buffer

Function 12: CP/M version number: H=00 CP/M, H=01 MP/M
L=00 ver prior to 2.0
L=20,21,22... subsequent versions

Function 13: Resets DMS address to BOOT+0080h

Function 23: renames file in first 16 bytes of FCB to name in second
16 bytes in FCB

Function 24: Returns a 16-bit value in HL - a 16-bit bit map where
the lowest bit represents A: and the highest bit P:
If the bit is set, that drive is present in the CP/M system

Function 29: Returns a similar bit map as func 24, except that a set
bit marks a drive which is Read/Only.

Function 33,34: the rn (Random Record No) must be set in the FCB prior to call

Function 35: fills in the file size in rn. If followed by a random write,
the file will be extended in length. Not that the "file size"
merely is the last record # - "hole" in sparse files are not
accounted for

Function 36: same as function 35 except that the current random record
position is stored in rn in FCB.

Function 37: this function is buggy - avoid using it

IOBYTE (0003H)

Device LST: PUN: RDR: CON:
Bit position 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Dec Binary

0 00 TTY: TTY: TTY: TTY:
1 01 CRT: PTP: PTR: CRT:
2 02 LPT: UP1: UR1: BAT:
3 03 UL1: UP2: UR2: UC1:

TTY: TeleTYpe
CRT: Cathode Ray Tube type terminal
BAT: BATch process (RDR=inut, LST=output)
UC1: User defined Console
LPT: Line Printer
UL1: User defined List device
PTR: Paper Tape Reader
UR1: User defined Reader device 1
UR2: User defined Reader device 2
PTP: Paper Tape Punch
UP1: User defined Punch device 1
UP2: User defined Punch device 2


low nibble = current drive (0=A, 1=B, etc)
high nibble = current user (V2.x only)


Hex Vector Function Value Value
addr name passed returned

4A00H+b BOOT Cold start entry point - C=0
4A03H+b WBOOT Warm start entry point - C=drv no
4A06H+b CONST Check for console ready - A=const
4A09H+b CONIN Read from console - A=char
4A0CH+b CONOUT Write to console C=char -
4A0FH+b LIST Write to list device C=char -
4A12H+b PUNCH Write to punch device C=char -
4A15H+b READER Read from reader device - A=char
4A18H+b HOME Move head to track 0 - -
4A1BH+b SELDSK Select drive C=drv no HL=dph*, HL=0 for error
4A1EH+b SETTRK Set track number BC=trk no -
4A21H+b SETSEC Set sector number BC=sec no -
4A24H+b SETDMA Set DMA address BC=DMA -
4A27H+b READ Read selected sector - A=dskst
4A2AH+b WRITE Write selected sector - A=dskst
4A2DH+b* LOSTST Get list status - A=lstst
4A30H+b* SECTRAN Sector translate BC=lsecno HL=physec

BOOT: gets control after the cold start loader
Basic system initalization
Send sign-on message
Set the WBOOT parameters
Jump to CCP at its entry point (at its first address 3400H+b)

WBOOT: gets control after Ctrl-C or JP 0000 or CPU reset
Reload CP/M CCP and BDOS
Setup JMP WBOOT at 0000H-0002H (JMP 4A03H+b)
Set inital value of IOBYTE at 0003H
Set 0004H hi nibble = current user no, lo nibble = current drive no
Setup JMP BDOS at 0005H-0007H (JMP 3C06H+b)
Set C=current drive, then branch to CCP at 3400H+b

const = console status: 00=idle, FF=data avail

dph = disk parameter/header address

dskst = disk status: 00=OK, 01=error

lstst = list status: 00=busy, FF=ready

lsecno = logical sector number \
physec = physical sector number | (standard skew factor = 6)
smap = sector interlace map address /

char = 7-bit ASCII char with parity bit (=hi bit) zero

drv no = drive number: 0=A, 1=B, etc, max 15=P
trk no = track number (0-76 std CP/M floppy, 0-65535 non-standard)
sec no = sector number (1-25 std CP/M floppy, 1-65535 non-standard)
DMA = DMA address (default 0080H)

* = not used in V1.4
** = contents of location 0002Hz


Byte Function

0 dr Drive code (0=current, 1=A, 2=B, ...., 16=P)
1-8 f1-f8 File name, hi but = 0
9-11 t1-t3 File type + status (hi bits)
t1: 1=R/O t2: 1=SYS t3: 1=archived
12 ex Current extent number
13 s1 reserved (V1.4: not used)
14 s2 =0 on BDOS call to Open/Make/Search (v1.4: always 0)
16 rc extent record count: 0-127
16-31 d0-dn Disk map
32 cr Current record for R/W
33-35 rn Random record number, 0-65535, overflow into 3rd byte


V1.4: b = memsize-16K
0000 - 00FF System scratch area
0100 - 28FF+b TPA (Transient Program Area) - COM file area
2900+b - 30FF+b CCP - Console COmmand Processor
3100+b - 3DFF+b BDOS
3E00+b - 3FFF+b CBIOS

V2.2: b = memsize-20K
0000 - 00FF System scratch area
0100 - 33FF+b TPA (Transient Program Area) - COM file area
3400+b - 3BFF+b CCP - Console COmmand Processor
3C00+b - 49FF+b BDOS
4A00+b - 4FFF+b CBIOS

System scratch area, "page zero":

00 - 02 Jump to BIOS warm start entry point
04 Login byte: Login drive number, current user number
05 - 07 Jump to BDOS
08 - 37 Reserved; interrupt vectors & future use
38 - 3A RST7 - used by DDT and SID programs, contains JMP into DDT/SID
3B - 3F Reserved for interrupt vector
40 - 4F Scratch area for CBIOS; unused by distribution version of CP/M
50 - 5B Not used, reserved
5C - 7C Default FCB (File Control Block) area
7D - 7F Optional Default Random Record Position (V2.x)
80 - FF Default DMA buffer area (128 bytes) for disk I/O
Also filled with CCP commandline at the start of a program


Media: 8" soft-sectored floppy-disk single density (IBM 3740 standard)
Tracks: 77, numbered 0 thru 76
Sectors/track: 26 (numbered 1 thru 26)
Bytes/sector: 128 data bytes (one logical record)
Storage/disk: 256256 bytes (77*26*128)
File size: any number of sectors from zero to capacity of disk
Extent: 1 kBytes - 8 sectors (smallest file space allocated)
Skew: 6 sectors standard (space between consecutive physical sectors
on track):

System: Track 0 & 1 (optional)
Track 0 sector 1: boot loader
Track 0 sectors 2-26: CCP & BDOS
Track 1 sectors 1-17: CCP & BDOS
Track 1 sectors 18-26: CBIOS

Directory: Track 2:
16 sectors typical
32 bytes/entry
64 entries typical
extents 0 and 1

User file area: Remaining sectors on Track 2 and 3 to 76, extents 2
and above

A Standard CP/M 8" SSSD floppy contains:

Track# Sector# Page# Mem address CP/M module name

00 01 (boot addr) Cold start loader

00 02 00 3400H+b CCP
00 03 . 3480H+b CCP
00 04 01 3500H+b CCP
00 05 . 3580H+b CCP
00 06 02 3600H+b CCP
00 07 . 3680H+b CCP
00 08 03 3700H+b CCP
00 09 . 3780H+b CCP
00 10 04 3800H+b CCP
00 11 . 3880H+b CCP
00 12 05 3900H+b CCP
00 13 . 3980H+b CCP
00 14 06 3A00H+b CCP
00 15 . 3A80H+b CCP
00 16 07 3B00H+b CCP
00 17 . 3B80H+b CCP

00 18 08 3C00H+b BDOS
00 19 . 3C80H+b BDOS
00 20 09 3D00H+b BDOS
00 21 . 3D80H+b BDOS
00 22 10 3E00H+b BDOS
00 23 . 3E80H+b BDOS
00 24 11 3F00H+b BDOS
00 25 . 3F80H+b BDOS
00 26 12 4000H+b BDOS
01 01 . 4080H+b BDOS
01 02 13 4100H+b BDOS
01 03 . 4180H+b BDOS
01 04 14 4200H+b BDOS
01 05 . 4280H+b BDOS
01 06 15 4300H+b BDOS
01 07 . 4380H+b BDOS
01 08 16 4400H+b BDOS
01 09 . 4480H+b BDOS
01 10 17 4500H+b BDOS
01 11 . 4580H+b BDOS
01 12 18 4600H+b BDOS
01 13 . 4680H+b BDOS
01 14 19 4700H+b BDOS
01 15 . 4780H+b BDOS
01 16 20 4800H+b BDOS
01 17 . 4880H+b BDOS
01 18 21 4900H+b BDOS
01 19 . 4980H+b BDOS

01 20 22 4A00H+b BIOS
01 21 . 4A80H+b BIOS
01 22 23 4B00H+b BIOS
01 23 . 4B80H+b BIOS
01 24 24 4C00H+b BIOS
01 25 . 4C80H+b BIOS
01 26 25 4D00H+b BIOS

02 01-08 Directory block 1
02 09-16 Directory block 2
02 17-26 Data
03-76 01-26 Data


Each disk drive has an associated 16-byte (8-word) DPH - Disk Parameter
Header, containing:

Offset Contents
------ --------
00H XLT Addr of logical-to-physical sector translation vector
or 0000H of no translation (i.e. they are the same)
Disk drives with identical sector skew factors
share the same table
02H 0000H \
04H 0000H | Scratchpad values for use within BDOS
06H 0000H / (initial value unimportant)
08H DIRBUF Addr of scratchpad 128-byte directory buffer.
All DPH's share the same DIRBUF.
0AH DPB Addr of Disk Parameter Block for this drive
0CH CSV Addr of scratchpad area used for software check for
changed disks. Each DPH has its own CSV.
0EH ALV Addr of scratchpad area used for disk storage
allocation information. Each DPH has its own ALV.

If the system has n disk drives, the n DPH's are arranged one after
another, from drive 0 to drive n-1, starting at DPBASE:

00 | XLT 00 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPB 00 | CSV 00 | ALV 00 |
01 | XLT 01 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPB 01 | CSV 01 | ALV 01 |
n-1 | XLTn-1 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | DIRBUF | DPBn-1 | CSVn-1 | ALVn-1 |

The SELDSK subroutine is responsible for returning the base address
of the DPH for the selected drive, or 0000H if there is no such drive:

NDISKS EQU 4 ; Number of disk drives
SELDSK: ; Select disk given by BC
LXI H,0000H ; Error return
MOV A,C ; Drive OK?
CPI NDISK ; Carry if so
RNC ; Return if error
; No error, continue
MOV L,C ; Low (disk)
MOV H,B ; Hi (disk)
DAD H ; *2
DAD H ; *4
DAD H ; *8
DAD H ; *16
DAD D ; DPH(disk)

The translation vectors (XLT 00 thru XLTn-1) are located elswehere in
the BIOS and simply correspond one-for-one with the logical sector number
zero through the sector count.

The Disk Parameter Block (DPB) for each drive type contains:

Offset Contents
------ --------
00H SPT 16b Total number of sectors per track
02H BSH 8b Data allocation block shift factor, determined
by the data block allocation size
03H BLM 8b Data allocation block mask (2[BSH-1])
04H EXM 8b Extent mask, determined by data block allocation
size and number of disk blocks
05H DSM 16b Total storage capacity of disk drive
07H DRM 16b Total number of directory entries minus one
09H AL0 8b Determines reserved directory blocks
0AH AL1 8b Determines reserved directory blocks
0BH CKS 16b Size of directory check vector
0DH OFF 16b No of reserved tracks at beginning of logical disk
0FH (end of table)

BSH and BLM are determined by BLS, the block size or data allocation size

----- --- --- DSM<256 DSM>=256
1024 3 7 0 n/a
2048 4 15 1 0
4096 5 31 3 1
8192 6 63 7 3
16384 7 127 15 7

i.e. BLS = 2**n where n = 10 to 14
BSH = n-7
BLM = 2**BSH - 1
EXM = 2**(BHS-2) - 1 if DSM<256
EXM = 2**(BHS-3) - 1 if DSM>=256

DSM = maximum data block number supported by this particular drive, measured
in BLS (BLock Size) units, or simply "number of allocation blocks on drive".
Blocks are counted from 0 to DSM, and thus BLS*(DSM+1) = the number of bytes
on the drive (excluding the system tracks). If DSM<256, the disk map in
the directory entry of the file will be 1 byte/block. If DSM>=256 it will
be 2 bytes/block.

DRM = total number of directory entries minus one.

AL0/AL1 = the directory allocation vector. Consider it a bit map of
bits 16 bits, bit 0-15, where 0=hi bit of AL0, 7=lo bit of AL0, 8=hi
bit of AL1, 15=lo bit of AL1. Bits are assigned starting at bit 0 up
until bit 15. Suppose nbits is the number of bits seet to 1:

BLS Directory entries
--- -----------------
1024 32 * nbits
2048 64 * nbits
4096 128 * nbits
8192 256 * nbits
16384 512 * nbits

Example: if DRM=127 (128 directory entries) and BLS=1024 bytes, there
are 32 directory entries per block, requiring 4 reserved blocks. Thus
the 4 hi bits if AL0 are set, and AL0=0FH, AL1=00H

CKS = size of directory check vector
If drive media is removable, then CKS = (DRM+1)/4
If drive media is fixed, then CKS=0 (no dir records checked)

OFF = number of reserved tracks. This value is automatically added
whenever SETTRK is called. It can be used to skip reserved system
tracks, or for partitioning a large disk into smaller segmented

Several DPH's can address the same DPB if the drive characteristics
are identical. The DPB can be dynamically changed when a new drive
is addressed by simply changing the pointer in the DPH since the BDOS
copies the DPB values to a local area whenever the SELDKS function
is invoked.

The size of the CSV (scratchpad area to check changed disks) is CKS
bytes. If CKS=(DRM+1)/4, this area must be reserved. If CKS=0, no
storage is reserved.

The size of the ALV (scratchpad area for disk storage allocation info)
is (DSM/8)+1 bytes where DSM is the disk size in allocation blocks.


Standard CP/M 8" SSSD disk

128 bytes/sector
26 sectors/track
77 tracks - 2 system tracks
75 used tracks ==> 243.75 user KBytes/disk
1024 bytes/block ==> 243 blocks/disk ==> DSM=242
Directory in 2 first blocks ==> 64 directory entries ==> 241.75 KBytes data

Sector skew table (1 byte/sector):
1, 7, 13, 19, 25, 5, 11, 17, 23, 3, 9, 15, 21,
2, 8, 14, 20, 26, 6, 12, 18, 24, 4, 10, 16, 22


SPT 16b 26 Sectors per track
BSH 8b 3 Block shift factor
BLM 8b 7 Block shift mask
EXM 8b 0 Extent mask - null
DSM 16b 242 Disk size - 1 (in blocks)
DRM 16b 63 directory mask = dir entries - 1
AL0 8b 0C0H Dir Alloc 0
AL1 8b 0 Dir Alloc 1
CKS 16b 16 Directory check vector size
OFF 16b 2 Track offset: 2 system tracks

Dirbuf 128 bytes
ALV 31 bytes
CSV 16 bytes

Block size 1024 bytes ==> BSH=3, BLM=7

DSM = 242 blocks

Disk size: 243.75 KBytes excluding system tracks
250.25 KBytes including system tracks

Apple CP/M 5.25" disks

Physical format: A B C

---- Standard ----- ----- Special ------
13-sect 16-sect 80-trk/16-sec/2-side

Bytes/sector 256 256 256
Sectors/track 13 16 16
Tracks 35 35 80
Heads 1 1 2

Sector skew table (1 byte/sector): no sector skew in CP/M BIOS
13-sector disks: hard sector skew
16-sector disks: soft sector skew in 6502 code (CP/M RWTS)


SPT 16b 26 32 32 Sectors per track
BSH 8b 3 3 4 Block shift factor
BLM 8b 7 7 15 Block shift mask
EXM 8b 0 0 0 Extent mask
DSM 16b 103 127 313 Disk size - 1 (in blocks)
DRM 16b 47 63 255 Directory mask = dir entries - 1
AL0 8b 0C0H 0C0H 0F0H Dir Alloc 0
AL1 8b 0 0 0 Dir Alloc 1
CKS 16b 12 16 64 Directory check vector size
OFF 16b 3 3 3 Track offset: 3 system tracks

Block size 1024 1024 2048
Dir entries 48 64 256
Dir blocks 2 2 4
DSM+1 104 128 314 blocks
Disk size 104 128 628 KBytes (excluding system tracks)
113.75 140 640 KBytes (including system tracks)

Dirbuf 128 128 128 bytes
ALV 14 17 40 bytes
CSV 12 16 64 bytes



New Member
Jan 13, 2019
PanamaCity, Florida
I appreciate all that Larry but I am still stuck in A:ROOT>
I can go to B> But None of the Commands work I still get whatever I type is repeated back only with a Question mark on the end.60C0CD28-A054-4760-9A3C-3066032B89B4.jpg32EF9E1C-C67D-4F12-9124-836C12035CC7.jpgF02F82DD-EB26-40A9-9082-148B2A226F1A.jpg


Veteran Member
Aug 19, 2003
Graham, WA USA
Your photos are too small to read the screen contents with any confidence. ;)

Try entering "user 0" and hit enter - what happens?

The A:ROOT> prompt tells me that the CCP has been replaced with something like ZCPR, but I've never seen a CP/M CCP that used named user areas like that.



Veteran Member
Apr 24, 2009
Morro Bay, CA
Clearly it's a ZCPR system. Not to be insulting but have you tried ^C (ctrl c) at the prompt? That might get you to a standard A0> prompt.
another thing to try are single letters and numbers.
Try some bigger pictures.


New Member
Jan 13, 2019
PanamaCity, Florida
This is what it shows at the A:ROOT>
And I wish I had Disks with it. I have a Box full of Manuals for it but No Disks.


New Member
Jan 13, 2019
PanamaCity, Florida
Thanks I will try, I am not sure if I tried that yet or not.
I Like the Ft. Carson Patch. I was there in C Battery 1/29 FA back from 1980 thru 1983


Veteran Member
Aug 19, 2003
Graham, WA USA
Clearly it's a ZCPR system. Not to be insulting but have you tried ^C (ctrl c) at the prompt? That might get you to a standard A0> prompt.
another thing to try are single letters and numbers.
Try some bigger pictures.

It might be obvious to /you/, but I've never seen a version of ZCPR that used named user areas.



Veteran Member
Apr 24, 2009
Morro Bay, CA
The Ampro Little Board uses ZCPR setup and to get to a regular CP/M prompt it's just a ctrl C. The ZCPR menu just takes single letters.